Afghanistan

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Find all vital information on the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan like its capital city, languages, geography, land border, currencies, population, surface area, etc.


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Country Names



Common : Afghanistan
Official: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Common (Native) : افغانستان
Official (Native) : جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان

 Some Translations

Arabic : جمهورية أففانستان الإسلامية
French: République islamique d’Afghanistan
Spanish : República Islámica de Afganistán
Italiano : Repubblica islamica dell’Afghanistan
Russian : Исламская Республика Афганистан
Japanese : アフガニスタン·イスラム共和国

 Geography



Time Zone : UTC+04:30
Region : Asia
Subregion: Southern Asia
Capital City : Kabul
Demonym : Afghan , Afghan
Lat/Lng : 33,65
Population : About 40218234 inhabitants
Area : 652230km²
Land borders : IRN,PAK,TKM,UZB,TJK,CHN

 Languages



Languages : Dari , Turkmen , Pashto

 Other details



Currencies : Afghan afghani (Symbol: ؋)
COUNTRY CODE : +9 (3)
ISO Codes : AF / AFG

Short Description Of Afghanistan

Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central Asia and South Asia. Referred to as the Heart of Asia, it is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south, Iran to the west, Turkmenistan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north, Tajikistan to the northeast, and China to the northeast and east. Occupying 652,864 square kilometres (252,072 sq mi) of land, the country is predominantly mountainous with plains in the north and the southwest, which are separated by the Hindu Kush mountain range. As of 2021, its population is 40.2 million (officially estimated to be 32.9 million), composed mostly of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, and Uzbeks. Kabul is the country’s largest city and serves as its capital.

Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic era, and the country’s strategic location along the historic Silk Road has led it to being described, picturesquely, as the ‘roundabout of the ancient world’. Popularly referred to as the graveyard of empires, the land has historically been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by the Persians, Alexander the Great, the Maurya Empire, Arab Muslims, the Mongols, the British, the Soviet Union, and most recently by an American-led coalition. Afghanistan also served as the source from which the Greco-Bactrians and the Mughals, among others, rose to form major empires. The various conquests and periods in both the Iranian and Indian cultural spheres made the area a center for Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and later Islam throughout history.

The modern state of Afghanistan began with the Durrani dynasty in the 18th century, with the Durrani Afghan Empire being formed by Ahmad Shah Durrani. The Durrani Empire led conquests in which, at its peak, encompassed land that spanned from eastern Iran to northern India. Following its decline and the death of Ahmad Shah Durrani, and Timur Shah, it was divided into multiple smaller independent kingdoms, including but not limited to: Herat, Kandahar and Kabul. Afghanistan would be reunited in the 19th century after 70 years of civil war from 1793-1863, with wars of unification led by Dost Mohammad Khan, where he conquered the independent principalities in Afghanistan. Dost Mohammad died in 1863, weeks after his last campaign to unite Afghanistan, and as a result, threw Afghanistan back into civil war with his successors. During this time, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the Great Game between the British Empire (in British-ruled India) and the Russian Empire. From India, the British attempted to subjugate Afghanistan but were repelled in the First Anglo-Afghan War. However, the Second Anglo-Afghan War saw a British victory and the successful establishment of British political influence over Afghanistan. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, Afghanistan became free of foreign dominance and eventually emerged as the independent Kingdom of Afghanistan in June 1926 under Amanullah Khan. This monarchy lasted almost 50 years, until Zahir Shah was overthrown in 1973, following which the Republic of Afghanistan was established.

Since the late 1970s, Afghanistan’s history has been dominated by extensive warfare, including coups, invasions, insurgencies, and civil wars. The conflict began in 1978 when a communist revolution established a socialist state, and subsequent infighting prompted the Soviet Union to invade Afghanistan in 1979. Mujahideen fought against them in the Soviet–Afghan War and continued fighting amongst themselves following Soviet withdrawal in 1989. The Islamic fundamentalist Taliban controlled most of the country by 1996, but their Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan received little international recognition before its overthrow in the 2001 United States invasion of Afghanistan. The Taliban returned to power in 2021 following Kabul’s capture by the Taliban and the concurrent overthrow of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, ending the 2001–2021 war. Although initially claiming to form an inclusive government for the country, the Taliban in September 2021 re-established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan with an interim government made up entirely of Taliban members; the regime currently remains internationally unrecognized.

Afghanistan is prominently rich in natural resources, including lithium, iron, zinc, and copper, amongst many others. It is also the world’s largest producer of opium, second largest producer of cannabis, and third largest of both saffron and cashmere. The country is a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and a founding member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Due to the effects of war in recent decades, the country has dealt with high levels of terrorism, poverty, and child malnutrition. Afghanistan’s economy is the world’s 96th-largest, with a gross domestic product (GDP) of $72.9 billion by purchasing power parity. Afghanistan is one of the least developed countries ranking 180th on the Human Development Index, and fares much worse in terms of per-capita GDP (PPP), ranking 169th out of 186 countries as of 2018.

National Anthems

Learn more about the National Anthems of Afghanistan from here.

Cities and towns in Afghanistan

Kunduz

Kunduz

countryboyDec 20, 20231 min read

Kunduz is a city in northern Afghanistan and is the capital city of the Kunduz Province. The province is located in the northeastern part of the country and is known for its diverse ethnic and linguistic composition. The majority of…

Gardez

Gardez

countryboyDec 20, 20231 min read

Gardez is the capital of the Paktia Province of Afghanistan. The population of the city was estimated to be ca. 10,000 in the 1979 census and was estimated to be 70,000 in 2008. Surrounded by the mountains and deserts of the Hindu Kush, which…

Herat

Herat

countryboyDec 20, 20231 min read

Herat is a city located in western Afghanistan. It is the capital of Herat Province and is one of the country’s largest and historically significant cities. Herat has a rich history that dates back over 2,000 years, with influences from…

Kabul

Kabul

countryboyJan 8, 20234 min read

Kabul (; Pashto: کابل, IPA: [kɑˈbəl]; Dari: کابل, IPA: [/kɑːbʊl/]) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. Located in the eastern half of the country, it is also a municipality, forming part of the Kabul Province; it is administratively divided into 22 municipal districts. According to…

ity in eastern Afghanistan

Jalalabad

countryboyDec 20, 20231 min read

Jalalabad is a city in eastern Afghanistan, situated in the Nangarhar Province. It is one of the major cities in the region and serves as the capital of Nangarhar Province. The city is located in the Kabul River valley near…

Aybak

Aybak

countryboyDec 20, 20231 min read

Aybak is a city in northern Afghanistan and is the capital of Samangan Province. Samangan Province is located in the central part of the country. Aybak has historical significance and is known for its cultural heritage. The earliest known history…

Lashkargah (Lashkar Gah)

Lashkargah (Lashkar Gah)

countryboyDec 20, 20231 min read

Lashkargah is a city in southern Afghanistan and serves as the capital of Helmand Province. It is a significant urban centre in the region and has experienced the effects of conflict and instability due to the broader geopolitical situation in…

Taloqan

Taloqan

countryboyDec 19, 20231 min read

Taloqan is a city in northern Afghanistan and serves as the capital of Takhar Province. It is located in the northeastern part of the country, approximately 280 kilometres (174 miles) northeast of the capital city, Kabul. Taloqan is situated in…

Kandahar

Kandahar

countryboyDec 19, 20231 min read

Kandahar is a city located in the southern part of Afghanistan. It is one of the country’s major cultural and economic centres, as well as the capital of Kandahar Province. The city has a rich history, dating back thousands of…

Ghazni

Ghazni

countryboyDec 19, 20231 min read

Ghazni is a historic city in central Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country. It serves as the capital of Ghazni Province. The city has a rich history that dates back over 1,500 years. Ghazni was an important…


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