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France is one of the oldest nations globally, stemming from an alliance of duchies and principalities led by a single ruler during the Middle Ages. Today, echoing that historical period, centralized authority rests within the state, although recent decades have witnessed the delegation of some autonomy to the country’s regions. The French populace views the state as the primary protector of liberty, reciprocated by a comprehensive range of benefits provided by the state, including free education, healthcare, and pension schemes. Nevertheless, this centralizing inclination often clashes with another enduring aspect of French identity: the emphasis on individual supremacy. Historian Jules Michelet astutely observed, “England is an empire, Germany is a nation, a race, France is a person.” Similarly, statesman Charles de Gaulle famously lamented, “Only peril can bring the French together. One can’t impose unity out of the blue on a country that has 265 kinds of cheese.”

1. Geography

The geography of France is varied, ranging from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the southeast, the Massif Central in the south-central, and the Pyrenees in the southwest. These mountains give way to a series of plains which run west to the Atlantic Ocean and then to the North Sea and the English Channel. In the south, the mountains sink to form a plateau which extends to the Pyrenees. The coastal areas give way to fertile plains, which are important for agriculture and have historically been settled and used for this purpose. There are also extensive forests, particularly in the centre and the south of the country. The coastal areas have many inlets and give rise to peninsulas and the ‘hook’ of Brittany in the northwest and the famous Riviera in the southeast. The political geography of France is rather simple. France is divided into regions. These are then subdivided into departments, of which there are approximately 96. These departments then have subdivisions which are either arrondissements or cantons. These are then divided into communes, which are the smallest political units and each ‘commune’ has its own Mayor and administration. The capital city is Paris and this has a complex administrative set-up based on the number of people living in the different areas, known as ‘arrondissements’. The geographical location of a country, in this case France, can have many different effects on the life expectancy of that country. For example, France’s total area is 547,030 square kilometres, which is also known as France’s ‘geographical position’. Its ‘relative location’ is that France is in Western Europe, in between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK. The ‘economic location’ of France is that it is in a relatively accessible location in Europe and has coasts on both the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean, which is ideal for trade and travel. However, this ‘economic location’ also makes it ideal for invaders. In the south, the Alps and the Pyrenees are the major mountain ranges. The highest mountain is Mont Blanc, which is 4,808 m high. The Massif Central is sometimes known as the ‘Central Uplands’ and is made of older rocks. The Jura and the Vosges are two ranges in eastern France and are known as the ‘forested uplands’.

1.1. Landscape

Historically, when discussing France, most people think of the Western European country as having a temperate broadleaf and mixed forests. However, much of France’s current land area consists of rolling hills and plains. The French landscape is diverse, with several main types of terrain to be found – both mountainous and upland areas, such as the Alps in the East and the Pyrenees in the Southwest, and plateaus, the most famous of which is the Massif Central, found in the middle of the country. France also has several rivers which crisscross the country, as well as a Mediterranean coastal region in the South. This wide-ranging selection of land types has led to the formation of 22 national parks in France, a surprisingly high number. These natural areas are protected and maintained thanks to the work of the French National Agency for the Protection of the Environment and the National Parks, which make a huge effort to maintain the parks and habitats found within them. This has produced areas of stable and untouched natural beauty, often far away from major tourist locations. In addition to national parks, France also holds multiple areas that are categorized as UNESCO World Heritage Sites because of their unique ecological systems, such as the Gulf of Porto, Scandola Nature Reserve in Corsica, the Banks of the Seine in Paris, and many more. These sites are also maintained and protected as a result of international recognition through the UNESCO program, allowing many countries to work together to protect these natural treasures for future generations.

1.2. Climate

In the southern and southeastern regions of France, the climate is Mediterranean. The winters here are mild and the temperature hardly ever falls below freezing point. Sunshine too is abundant all year round with around 300 days of the year being sunny. The summer months from June to September are hot and dry in this part of the country and also the most popular amongst tourists as this is the ideal weather to visit the beach and make the most of the Mediterranean Sea. For the most part, the central and western parts of France including the Massif Central, the Aquitaine basin, the central and southern part of the Rhone-Alps and the northern Alps experience a continental type of climate. This means that the summers are hot and the winters are cold. Snowfall is common during the winter period. On the other hand, cities located in the northern part of France see an oceanic climate. This type of climate is characterized by much rainfall, especially in the late spring and early autumn. The winters here are mild but the temperature hardly goes below freezing point. In the northern and northwest regions of France, such as Brittany, Normandy, Pays de la Loire; and the Paris region, the weather is also affected by the Atlantic to have an oceanic type of climate. Summers are warm but the temperature usually does not reach above 27 to 30 degrees Celsius which is ideal for sightseeing and outdoor activities as well as a popular time for tourists to visit these areas. However, the winter in these regions is really cold and most of the time, it is cloudy, overcast, windy and wet. On the whole, climes in France are comfortable and moderate. Modern-day travellers can enjoy a wide range of activities all around the year by taking advantage of the diverse type of climates across this large country and accommodating their personal choice of weather and temperatures.

1.3. Natural Resources

France is considered as one of the countries of Western Europe, well known for its fertile land and agricultural resources. Agriculture in the country of France is one of the main occupations, as it earns a large amount of money for the country. It generally produces wheat, sugar beet, maize (corn), rapeseed, and barley. These are the major crops of the country. Wine and vineyards are also found in abundance in the southern-central part of France. France is well known for producing high-quality wine in the whole world. It mainly exports wines to the United States, Great Britain, and Japan. The cows of France are also world-famous for producing better breeds of cows. The different breeds of cows are found throughout the country. They produce milk and dairy products which are the second most important product of the country. The dairy products include cheese, butter, and different types of milk such as cow’s milk, buffalo’s milk, and goat’s milk. France is also rich in its mineral resources. It has large reserves of iron in the northeastern part of the country. Coal is found in the eastern and the central part. Bauxite and zinc are also found in France. Bauxite is mainly used in making aluminium. The southern part of France is rich in petroleum, as the country has a well-established oil industry. The coal mines and steel industries of France are mainly found in the Nord-Pas de Calais coalfield. It is the most important coalfield in the country. The Alsace iron and steel works are found in the Lorraine region. The iron and steel industries are one of the main occupations of the people living in the Lorraine region. This shows that the natural resources of France are being utilized in different parts of the country. Cotton and woollen textile industries are found around Roubaix and Tourcoing towns. The Roubaix and Tourcoing towns are divided by a small river Scheldt. The long history of textile industries in both towns has made them well-known in France.

2. Etymology

Originally applied to the entire Frankish Empire, the name France originates from the Latin Francia, meaning “realm of the Franks.” In modern languages, it is still referred to as Francia in Italian and Spanish, Frankreich in German, Frankrijk in Dutch, and Frankrike in Swedish and Norwegian, all denoting “Land/realm of the Franks.”

The term “Frank” is linked to the English word “frank,” meaning “free.” This connection stems from the Old French word franc, signifying “free, noble, sincere,” which ultimately derives from Medieval Latin francus, indicating “free, exempt from service; freeman, Frank.” The adoption of the meaning “free” may be attributed to the fact that, following the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were exempt from taxation, or more broadly because they held the status of freemen in contrast to servants or slaves.

The etymology of *Frank is uncertain, though traditionally derived from the Proto-Germanic word *frankōn, meaning “javelin” or “lance” (the throwing axe of the Franks was known as the francisca), although it’s possible that these weapons were named due to their use by the Franks, rather than the other way around.

In English, ‘France’ is pronounced /fræns/ FRANSS in American English and /frɑːns/ FRAHNSS or /fræns/ FRANSS in British English. The pronunciation with /ɑː/ is mainly found in accents with the trap-bath split such as Received Pronunciation, though it may also be heard in some other dialects like Cardiff English, where /frɑːns/ is used interchangeably with /fræns/.

3. History of France

The history of France is rich and complex, spanning thousands of years. Its origins can be traced back to prehistoric times when Celtic tribes inhabited the region. These tribes were gradually conquered by the Romans, who established Gaul as a Roman province around 50 BC. Roman influence persisted for centuries until the decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD.

Following the fall of Rome, Gaul was invaded by various Germanic tribes, notably the Franks, who eventually established the Frankish Kingdom. Under the leadership of Clovis I, the Frankish Kingdom expanded and became the dominant power in Western Europe by the 8th century. Clovis’ conversion to Christianity further solidified the kingdom’s influence.

The medieval period saw the emergence of the Carolingian Empire, founded by Charlemagne, who was crowned Emperor of the Romans in 800 AD. Charlemagne’s empire encompassed much of modern-day France, Germany, and Italy, marking a period of cultural and political revival known as the Carolingian Renaissance. However, after Charlemagne’s death, the empire fragmented, leading to the rise of feudalism and the decentralization of power.

The High Middle Ages witnessed the emergence of the Capetian dynasty, which gradually consolidated power over the French territories. Philip II, also known as Philip Augustus, was a key figure in this process, significantly expanding the royal domain through military conquests and strategic marriages. The reign of Philip IV saw the establishment of the Estates-General, marking an early step towards representative government in France.

The late Middle Ages were characterized by conflict, including the Hundred Years’ War with England, which lasted from 1337 to 1453. Despite early setbacks, France ultimately emerged victorious under the leadership of figures like Joan of Arc. The war contributed to the centralization of power under the monarchy and the development of a sense of national identity among the French people.

The early modern period saw France become a dominant European power under the reign of Louis XIV, known as the Sun King. His absolutist rule, characterized by grandeur and cultural flourishing, cemented France’s status as a leading force in politics, arts, and philosophy. However, Louis XIV’s reign also saw economic hardships and social unrest, culminating in the French Revolution of 1789, which transformed France into a republic and ignited waves of radical change across Europe.

4. Government

France operates as a representative democracy, structured as a unitary, semi-presidential republic. Its Constitution, established in 1958, aimed to address previous governmental instabilities by blending elements of parliamentary and presidential systems while enhancing executive authority. The executive branch is led by two figures: the President, currently Emmanuel Macron, who is directly elected for a five-year term, and the Prime Minister, currently Gabriel Attal, appointed by the President to oversee domestic policy. The President holds considerable powers, including the ability to dissolve Parliament, appoint judges and civil servants, negotiate international agreements, and command the Armed Forces. Meanwhile, the Prime Minister focuses on implementing public policy.

The legislative branch consists of the bicameral French Parliament, comprising the National Assembly and the Senate. Members of the National Assembly, known as députés, are elected directly for five-year terms and can dismiss the government by majority vote. Senators are chosen by an electoral college for six-year terms, with half the seats subject to election every three years. Despite having limited legislative authority, the Senate’s decisions can be overruled by the National Assembly in case of disagreement.

Historically, French politics saw dominance from two opposing groups: the left-wing Socialist Party and the right-wing Gaullist Party. However, since 2017, a radical centrist party, La République En Marche! (LREM), led by Emmanuel Macron, has risen to prominence, challenging the traditional political landscape. LREM’s main rival in recent presidential elections has been the far-right National Rally (RN). Additionally, the Green Party, Europe Ecology – The Greens (EELV), has gained traction in major cities, while a coalition of left-wing parties, known as the NUPES, emerged as a significant force in the lower house in 2022.

French citizens possess constitutional rights to vote on parliamentary amendments and presidential proposals through referendums, which have historically influenced domestic and foreign policy decisions, including Algeria’s independence and EU formation. These democratic traditions reflect France’s deep-rooted commitment to governance by the people.

5. Economy

France boasts a well-developed, diverse economy ranking as the world’s 7th largest by nominal GDP and 9th largest by purchasing power parity (PPP) While the services sector dominates, contributing nearly 79% of GDP, agriculture, industry, and resource management also play crucial roles. This analysis delves into the intricate components of the French economic landscape:

Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing:

France remains the leading agricultural producer in the EU, despite employing only 3% of its workforce. Grains, particularly wheat and barley, form the backbone of agricultural output. Fruits, especially apples and grapes, flourish in diverse climates, fueling a thriving winemaking industry. Renowned for its cheese and dairy products, France boasts a significant dairy and livestock sector, with cattle, pigs, and poultry contributing significantly. Agribusiness, encompassing large-scale farming and related industries like food processing and machinery, plays a vital role in the sector’s efficiency.

Forestry and Fishing: Although not as prominent as agriculture, French forestry contributes steadily to the nation’s economy. Sustainable practices ensure the preservation of valuable timber resources. Fishing, primarily focused on cod, tuna, and shellfish in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, provides jobs and contributes to the seafood industry.

Resources and Power:

France boasts limited mineral resources, relying on imports for essential materials like oil, gas, and precious metals. However, the country has actively pursued renewable energy sources like nuclear, solar, and wind power. Today, nuclear energy accounts for nearly 70% of France’s electricity generation, making it a world leader in this technology.


Though its share of GDP has declined in recent years, the French manufacturing sector remains significant, accounting for roughly 19.5% of GDP. It features a diverse range of industries, from high-tech aerospace and automotive industries to traditional sectors like textiles and luxury goods. Recent trends reflect a focus on innovation and automation, leading to increased efficiency and competitiveness in the global market.


Financial services contribute substantially to the French economy. The banking sector is well-developed, with numerous leading national and international banks operating within the country. Additionally, a robust insurance industry caters to diverse needs, while the Euronext stock exchange in Paris serves as a prominent platform for trading securities. Foreign investment plays a crucial role in the French economy, with France being the largest recipient of foreign direct investment in Europe in 2020.


France maintains a strong presence in global trade, benefiting from its membership in the European Union. The country enjoys a significant trade surplus in the agricultural sector, exporting a wide range of products like wine, cheese, and processed foods. Trade with other European nations remains crucial, but France also maintains essential trade partnerships with countries like China and the United States.


The service sector is the undisputed powerhouse of the French economy, contributing nearly 79% of GDP. This sector encompasses diverse sub-sectors, including tourism, civil service, transportation, and telecommunications. Tourism, a cornerstone of the service sector, benefits from France’s rich cultural heritage, historical landmarks, and diverse landscapes. Notably, the French civil service sector employs a significant portion of the workforce, providing essential public services.

Labour and Taxation:

France maintains a comprehensive social safety net, providing benefits like unemployment insurance, healthcare, and education. However, this system is funded through a relatively high tax burden compared to other developed economies. The government actively pursues policies promoting social welfare and economic stability.

Transportation and Telecommunications:

France boasts a well-developed transportation infrastructure, featuring an extensive network of roads, railroads, waterways, and airports. High-speed rail lines connect major cities, facilitating efficient movement of people and goods. Additionally, the country possesses a modern and advanced telecommunications infrastructure, ensuring widespread access to high-speed internet and communication services.

In conclusion, France boasts a multifaceted and well-developed economy. While the service sector reigns supreme, a diverse range of industries and sectors contribute to the nation’s economic prosperity. As the nation navigates global challenges and embraces technological advancements, the French economy is poised to evolve and adapt, ensuring its continued success in the global arena.

6. Culture

The artistic, architectural, literary, cinematic, and culinary contributions of France are vast and diverse, reflecting the nation’s rich cultural heritage and global influence.

In art, France has been shaped by various influences over the centuries, including Flemish and Italian art during the Renaissance. Notable artists like Jean Fouquet and Nicolas Poussin were pivotal figures in French art history. The 18th century saw the development of the rococo style, while the French Revolution led to a shift towards neoclassicism under Napoleon’s patronage. The 19th century witnessed the rise of Impressionism and Symbolism, with artists like Monet, Renoir, and Cézanne leading the way.

Architecturally, France boasts a blend of medieval, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, and neoclassical styles. From medieval fortifications to Gothic cathedrals like Notre Dame de Chartres, the country’s architecture reflects its rich history. The Renaissance saw the construction of opulent châteaux in the Loire Valley, while the Baroque era left its mark on structures like the Palace of Versailles. The 19th century brought about urban planning reforms in Paris under Napoleon III, giving rise to iconic landmarks like the Eiffel Tower.

Literature and philosophy have flourished in France, with renowned figures such as François Rabelais, Victor Hugo, and Marcel Proust making significant contributions. From medieval epics to existentialist works, French literature encompasses a diverse range of genres and styles. Philosophers like Descartes, Voltaire, and Sartre have shaped intellectual discourse not only in France but also around the world.

French music has a rich tradition spanning classical, jazz, and popular genres. Influential composers like Rameau, Debussy, and Ravel have left lasting legacies, while contemporary artists continue to innovate. French cinema has been at the forefront of global filmmaking since its inception, with directors like Jean-Luc Godard and François Truffaut leading the Nouvelle Vague movement. France’s fashion industry is renowned for haute couture and luxury brands like Chanel and Dior, contributing to the country’s reputation as a fashion capital.

Cuisine is an integral part of French culture, with traditional dishes like coq au vin and boeuf bourguignon showcasing the country’s culinary expertise. French wines and cheeses are celebrated worldwide, reflecting the diversity of regional gastronomy. Sporting events like the Tour de France and the French Open demonstrate France’s passion for sports, while its national teams in football and rugby enjoy widespread support.

Overall, France’s cultural contributions span a wide spectrum, encompassing art, architecture, literature, music, cinema, fashion, cuisine, and sports, making it a vibrant and dynamic cultural powerhouse on the global stage.


In 1802, Napoleon instituted the lycée, marking the culmination of secondary education aimed at preparing students for higher academic pursuits or professional endeavors. However, it was Jules Ferry who is credited as the architect of modern French education, spearheading reforms during the late 19th century that established the principles of free, secular, and mandatory schooling, which persists until the age of 16.

The French education system is centralized and structured into three primary stages: primary, secondary, and tertiary education. According to the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), overseen by the OECD, France’s educational performance in 2018 hovered around the OECD average. Among the participating nations, French students reported comparatively lower levels of teacher support and feedback. Additionally, concerns about classroom discipline and behaviour were more pronounced among French schoolchildren compared to their OECD counterparts.

Higher education in France is characterized by a division between public universities and the prestigious, highly selective Grandes écoles. These institutions, such as Sciences Po Paris for political studies, HEC Paris for Economics, Polytechnique, the École des hautes études en sciences sociales for social studies, and the École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris for engineering, along with the École nationale d’administration for careers in the state’s top administrative bodies, are renowned for producing prominent figures in civil service, business leadership, and politics.

Criticism has been levelled against the Grandes écoles for perpetuating elitism, as they disproportionately groom a significant portion of France’s influential civil servants, corporate executives, and political leaders.

Some popular universities in France

As far as Education is concerned in France, here are some of the top Universities you will find.

IÉSEG School of ManagementN/AVisit Website
Académie de ParisN/AVisit Website
Académie d’Aix-MarseilleN/AVisit Website
Académie de CréteilN/AVisit Website
42 FRN/AVisit Website
Ecole de l’AirN/AVisit Website
AgroParisTechN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Agronomie de RennesN/AVisit Website
AgroSup DijonN/AVisit Website
American Graduate School in ParisN/AVisit Website
American University of ParisN/AVisit Website
British Institute in Paris, University of LondonN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Sophia AntipolisN/AVisit Website
Centre d’Etudes Supérieures Industrielles ParisN/AVisit Website
Centre de Formation et de Perfectionnement des JournalistesN/AVisit Website
Conservatoire National des Arts et MétiersN/AVisit Website
Centre National d’Etudes Agronomiques des Régions ChaudesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Chimie Physique Electronique de LyonN/AVisit Website
Université Bordeaux IN/AVisit Website
Institut des Sciences de l’Ingénieur de Clermont-FerrandN/AVisit Website
Université Paris-Dauphine (Paris IX)N/AVisit Website
Ecole Superieur d’Ingenieurs Leonard de VinciN/AVisit Website
Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Informatique pour l’IndustrieN/AVisit Website
Ecole Européen des AffairesN/AVisit Website
European Business SchoolN/AVisit Website
Ecole Catholique d’Arts & MetiersN/AVisit Website
Ecole Centrale d’Electronique – ECEN/AVisit Website
IMT AtlantiqueN/AVisit Website
Ecole Centrale de LilleN/AVisit Website
Ecole Centrale de LyonN/AVisit Website
Ecole Centrale de NantesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Centrale de MarseilleN/AVisit Website
IDRAC (Institut de recherche en action commerciale)N/AVisit Website
Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales du NordN/AVisit Website
Ecole pour les Etudes et la Recherche en Informatique et ElectroniqueN/AVisit Website
Ecole Française de Papeterie et des Industries GraphiquesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Française d’Electronique et d’InformatiqueN/AVisit Website
Ecole des Ingénieurs de la Ville de ParisN/AVisit Website
European Management Center ParisN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de LyonN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de St-EtienneN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale de l’Aviation CivileN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale d’AdministrationN/AVisit Website
ENIC Telecom Lille 1N/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de MetzN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Saint-EtienneN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs des Travaux Agricoles de BordeauxN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs des Travaux Agricoles de Clermont-FerrandN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de TarbesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs des Techniques des Industries Agricoles et AlimentairesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale de la MétéorologieN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale des Ponts et ChauseesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieur de Mécaniques et des MicrotechniquesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l’Administration EconomiqueN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Agronomie et des Industries AlimentairesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l’Analyse de l’informationN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries TextilesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Agronomie de MontpellierN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de ToulouseN/AVisit Website
Ecole Normale Supérieure de CachanN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Clermont-FerrandN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de LilleN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de MontpellierN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de MulhouseN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie et de Physique de BordeauxN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de ParisN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de RennesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l’Electronique et de ses ApplicationsN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure en Electrotechnique, Electronique, Informatique et Hydraulique de ToulouseN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure Electricité et MécaniqueN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Electronique et de Radioelectricite de BordeauxN/AVisit Website
Ecole Normale Supérieure de Fontenay-Saint CloudN/AVisit Website
Ecole Normale Supérieure de ParisN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale des Sciences GéographiquesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieur de Géologie de NancyN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieur d’Ingénieurs de Constructions AéronautiqueN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Industries Chimiques de NancyN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieur des Ingénieur des Etudes et Techniques d’ArmementN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Industries Textiles de MulhouseN/AVisit Website
Ecole Normale Supérieure de LyonN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieur de Mécanique et d’AéronautiqueN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines d’AlèsN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de DouaiN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de ParisN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Physique de MarseilleN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Techniques AvancéesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Telecommunications de BretagneN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Telecommunications de ParisN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l’EtatN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de ToulouseN/AVisit Website
EPF Ecole d’IngénieursN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure d’Agriculture de PurpanN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de BordeauxN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de BrestN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Clermont-FerrandN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de DijonN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce et ManagementN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de LilleN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Marseille-ProvenceN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Nantes-AtlantiqueN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Le Havre/CaenN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Chimie Organique et MinéraleN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de PauN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de ParisN/AVisit Website
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Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de ReimsN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de RouenN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de ToulouseN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure d’Electronique de l’OuestN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure Internationale d’Administration des EntreprisesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure d’Informatique-Electronique-AutomatiqueN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure d’Ingénieurs en Electronique et ElectrotechniqueN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure d’Ingénieurs en Génie ElectriqueN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de MarseilleN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure d’Ingénieurs et de Techniciens pour l’AgricultureN/AVisit Website
Ecole Spéciale de Mécanique et d’ElectricitéN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie IndustriellesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Commerciales d’AngersN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Economiques et CommercialesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure des Sciences et Technologie de l’Ingénieur de NancyN/AVisit Website
Ecole Spéciale des Travaux Publics du Bâtiment et de l’IndustrieN/AVisit Website
Ecole Universitaire d’Ingénieurs de LilleN/AVisit Website
Université Catholique de LilleN/AVisit Website
Grenoble Ecole de ManagementN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure d’Agriculture d’AngersN/AVisit Website
École des Hautes Études Commerciales (HEC Business School)N/AVisit Website
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Ecole des Hautes Etudes Industrielles de LilleN/AVisit Website
Institut Catholique d’Arts et Métiers LilleN/AVisit Website
Institut Commercial de NancyN/AVisit Website
Institut Catholique de ParisN/AVisit Website
Institut Catholique de ToulouseN/AVisit Website
Institut d’Etudes Politiques de BordeauxN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure du Pétrole et des MonteursN/AVisit Website
Institut National Polytechnique de ToulouseN/AVisit Website
Institut National Polytechnique de LorraineN/AVisit Website
Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de LyonN/AVisit Website
Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de RennesN/AVisit Website
Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de RouenN/AVisit Website
Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de ToulouseN/AVisit Website
Institut des hautes études économiques et commercialesN/AVisit Website
Institut National des TélécommunicationsN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure d’OptiqueN/AVisit Website
Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/MusiqueN/AVisit Website
Institut de Recherche et d’Enseignement Supérieur aux Techniques de l’électroniqueN/AVisit Website
Institut Supérieur Agricole de BeauvaisN/AVisit Website
Institut Supérieur d’Agriculture LilleN/AVisit Website
Institut Supérieur d’Agriculture Rhone-AlpesN/AVisit Website
Institut Supérieure d’Electronique du NordN/AVisit Website
Institut Supérieure d’Electronique de ParisN/AVisit Website
Institut des Sciences de l’Ingénieur de MontpellierN/AVisit Website
Centre d’Etudes Supérieures des Techniques IndustriellesN/AVisit Website
Institut des Sciences de la Matière et du RayonnementN/AVisit Website
Institut Textile et Chimique de LyonN/AVisit Website
Sorbonne Université – Faculté des Sciences (Paris VI)N/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de NancyN/AVisit Website
Université Michel de Montaigne (Bordeaux III )N/AVisit Website
Université Montesquieu (Bordeaux IV)N/AVisit Website
Ecole d’Architecture de NancyN/AVisit Website
Université Paris-Sorbonne (Paris IV)N/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Arts et Métiers de ParisN/AVisit Website
Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de LilleN/AVisit Website
Ecole Polytechnique MarseilleN/AVisit Website
École PolytechniqueN/AVisit Website
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Schiller International University, ParisN/AVisit Website
Schiller International University, StrasbourgN/AVisit Website
Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po)N/AVisit Website
Université Denis Diderot (Paris VII)N/AVisit Website
Ecole Superieure Robert de SorbonN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l’Aéronautique et de l’EspaceN/AVisit Website
Groupe Sup de Co Amiens PicardieN/AVisit Website
Groupe Sup de Co MontpellierN/AVisit Website
Ecole Supérieure d’ElectricitéN/AVisit Website
Université d’Aix-Marseille IIIN/AVisit Website
Université Victor Segalen (Bordeaux II)N/AVisit Website
Université Bourgogne – Franche-ComtéN/AVisit Website
Université de Cergy-PontoiseN/AVisit Website
Université d’Auvergne (Clermont-Ferrand I)N/AVisit Website
Université Catholique de l’ OuestN/AVisit Website
Université Grenoble AlpesN/AVisit Website
Université Rennes II – Haute-BretagneN/AVisit Website
Université Henri Poincaré (Nancy I)N/AVisit Website
Université de Caen Basse NormandieN/AVisit Website
Université de Nice-Sophia AntipolisN/AVisit Website
Université de LimogesN/AVisit Website
Université d’AngersN/AVisit Website
Université d’ArtoisN/AVisit Website
Université d’AvignonN/AVisit Website
Université Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand II)N/AVisit Website
Université de Bretagne OccidentaleN/AVisit Website
Université Catholique de LyonN/AVisit Website
Université de Corse Pascal PaoliN/AVisit Website
Université d’Evry Val d’EssonneN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de ToulouseN/AVisit Website
Université du HavreN/AVisit Website
Université du MaineN/AVisit Website
Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille (Lille I)N/AVisit Website
Université du Droit et de la Sante (Lille II)N/AVisit Website
Université Charles-de-Gaulle (Lille III)N/AVisit Website
Université du Littoral Cote d’OpaleN/AVisit Website
Université de LorraineN/AVisit Website
Université de La RochelleN/AVisit Website
Université Claude Bernard (Lyon I)N/AVisit Website
Université Lumiére (Lyon II)N/AVisit Website
Université Jean Moulin (Lyon III)N/AVisit Website
Université de la Méditerranée (Aix Marseille II)N/AVisit Website
Université de MetzN/AVisit Website
Université Paris-Est Marne-la-ValléeN/AVisit Website
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Université de Montpellier IN/AVisit Website
Université de Montpellier IIN/AVisit Website
Université Paul Valéry (Montpellier III)N/AVisit Website
Université de Haute-AlsaceN/AVisit Website
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Université Nancy IIN/AVisit Website
Université de NantesN/AVisit Website
Université d’OrléansN/AVisit Website
Université Val-de-Marne (Paris XII)N/AVisit Website
Université Paris Nord (Paris XIII)N/AVisit Website
Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris I)N/AVisit Website
Université Sorbonne-Nouvelle (Paris III)N/AVisit Website
Université René Descartes (Paris V)N/AVisit Website
Université Vincennes Saint-Denis (Paris VIII)N/AVisit Website
Université de Pau et des Pays de l’AdourN/AVisit Website
Université de PerpignanN/AVisit Website
Université de PoitiersN/AVisit Website
Université de Reims Champagne-ArdenneN/AVisit Website
Université Rennes IN/AVisit Website
Université de Rouen – Haute NormandieN/AVisit Website
Université de SavoieN/AVisit Website
Université Jean MonnetN/AVisit Website
Université du Sud, Toulon et VarN/AVisit Website
Université des Sciences Sociales (Toulouse I)N/AVisit Website
Université de Toulouse-le-Mirail (Toulouse II)N/AVisit Website
Université de ToulouseN/AVisit Website
Université François Rabelais de ToursN/AVisit Website
Université de Bretagne SudN/AVisit Website
Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-CambrésisN/AVisit Website
Université Paris Nanterre (Paris X)N/AVisit Website
Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris II)N/AVisit Website
Université de Picardie Jules-VerneN/AVisit Website
Université Paul Sabatier (Toulouse III)N/AVisit Website
Université Paris Sud (Paris XI)N/AVisit Website
Université d’Aix-MarseilleN/AVisit Website
Université de Provence (Aix-Marseille I)N/AVisit Website
Université des Sciences Humaines (Strasbourg II)N/AVisit Website
Université de Technologie de Belfort MontbéliardN/AVisit Website
Université de Technologie de CompiègneN/AVisit Website
Université de Technologie de TroyesN/AVisit Website
Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-YvelinesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’AlfortN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de LyonN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de NantesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux de StrasbourgN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale du Génie de l’Eau et de l’Environnement de StrasbourgN/AVisit Website
Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries de StrasbourgN/AVisit Website
Institut polytechnique de GrenobleN/AVisit Website
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Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Physique de StrasbourgN/AVisit Website
Université Louis Pasteur (Strasbourg I)N/AVisit Website
Université Robert Schuman (Strasbourg III)N/AVisit Website
Université de StrasbourgN/AVisit Website
Ecole pour l’Informatique et les nouvelles TechnologiesN/AVisit Website
Ecole Pour l’Informatique et les Techniques AvanceesN/AVisit Website
Institut polytechnique des sciences avanceesN/AVisit Website
Ecole des technologies numeriques appliqueesN/AVisit Website
Institut Sup’Biotech de ParisN/AVisit Website
DUT MMI – Université Bordeaux MontaigneN/AVisit Website
Campus Saint MarcN/AVisit Website
Institut d’études politiques de RennesN/AVisit Website
Rennes School of BusinessN/AVisit Website
AudenciaN/AVisit Website
Académie d’Orléans-ToursCentre-Val de LoireVisit Website
Académie de BesançonBurgundy-Franche-ComtéVisit Website
Université Clermont AuvergneAuvergne-Rhône-AlpesVisit Website
SKEMA Business SchoolN/AVisit Website
INSEADN/AVisit Website
Académie de MayotteMayotteVisit Website
Collège de FranceN/AVisit Website
University of BurgundyN/AVisit Website
Académie de BordeauxN/AVisit Website
Institut privé d’enseignement supérieurN/AVisit Website
Université Paris-SaclayN/AVisit Website
INU ChampollionN/AVisit Website
Institute Français de la ModeN/AVisit Website
EIGSI La RochelleN/AVisit Website

Towns, and cities in France

The National Flag


The National Flag of France

The French national flag, also known as the Tricolour, consists of three vertical bands of blue, white, and red. Its design was adopted following the French Revolution, influenced by the red-white-blue flag of the Netherlands. Although not the first tricolour,…


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